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Despre experimentul Michelson-Morley - 1887
« : Martie 11, 2008, 09:17:54 p.m. »
Unul dintre cele mai importante evenimente din istoria stiintifica moderna care a modificat radical parcusul urmat de fizica teoretica si practica de mai tarziu a fost experimentul Michelson-Morley.

Pana atunci, in 1887, toti fizicienii (inclusiv J. Maxwell) isi imaginau ca exista un mediu care imbratiseaza intreaga existenta, si prin care calatoresc undele de lumina si cele electromagnetice (e/m). Premisa de la care se pornea era ca, daca sunetul este o unda care se propaga prin aer, iar miscarea apei genereaza unde sau valuri, lumina ar trebui sa calatoreasca sub forma de unde printr-un mediu similar. Aceasta ipoteza afirma ca lumina poate fi incetinita daca intalneste in cale un fel de vant eteric. Dar experimentul Michelson-Morley (emiterea a doua fascicule de lumina dintr-o singura sursa luminoasa, masurand apoi diferenta de timp necesara celor doua fascicule pentru a se intoarce la sursa) a socat comunitatea stiintifica de atunci, aratand (cel putin asa a crezut Albert Michelson) ca eterul nu prezinta semne exterioare vizibile ale existentei sale.

Evident, intreaga presupunere sugereaza faptul ca eterul este o forta masurabila; iar A. Michelson si E. Morley nu aveau la dispozitie tehnologia necesara pentru ca detecteze prezenta eterului. In realitate, experimentul nu a dovedit cu nimic inexistenta eterului; pur si simplu, cei doi oameni de stiinta nu au descoperit ceva care sa corespunda ideilor lor preconcepute.

Dupa acest experiment din 1887, urmatorul eveniment care a 'cutremurat' lumea fizicii a fost aparitia teoriei speciale a relativitatii, lansata public de Einstein in 1905. Teoria lui Einstein include principiul potrivit caruia nici o forma de energie nu se poate deplasa cu o viteza mai mare decat c, viteza luminii.

Sa urmarim si logica expusa de I. Newton in eliminarea conceptului de eter din fizica:

Worse still, in Newton's mighty system there was no room left for the ether. This also undermined the wave theory of light, which Huygens had recently presented to the world. Newton himself regretted this, for the wave theory was essential to his theory of color. There still remained the problem of explaining the spectrum: why were the rays of primary light arranged in the particular order of red, yellow, green, and violet? Why did light consist of many colors; what were colors? According to Huygens they were simply waves of differing lengths, differing frequencies, just like different pitches. The spectrum represented a scale, a gamut of light.

This explanation seemed to emerge again from another of Newton's experiments. If light is passed through a lens pressed upon a plate of glass, a wreath of colored rings is produced. When monochromatic light is sent through such an apparatus, the rings of each color appear at different distances from one another. Newton measured the distances and was in effect measuring the wave lengths of light. But he would not accept this explanation; light waves could not exist because there was no medium, no ether, to transmit them. So impossible, nonsensical a concept as that of the ether had no right to existence. Anything that did not follow from observations was a hypothesis, he maintained, and hypotheses had no place in experimental science.

Newton therefore concluded that light consisted of corpuscles passing through empty space. The differing distances of the colored rings proved only that the corpuscles were affected by their passage through the lens and the glass, that their character was affected in some way, to what degree depending on their color.

Only Newton with his incredibly sane and all-embracing system, could have succeeded in putting across so absurd a conception. He won the battle completely. The wave theory vanished, and with it Descartes's ether eddies. The whole triumphant world-view of the Baroque Age had been shattered. In its place Newton offered the inexplicable, remote force of gravitation which was, admittedly, a mystery to himself. When he was asked what accounted for it, he flatly refused to venture any opinion: 'I do not invent hypotheses.'

Desi anumiti fizicieni ai epocii (1887-1910) afirmau ca lumina este alcatuita din unde continue, cercetarile lui Einstein l-au condus pe acesta sa creada ca lumina reprezinta un flux de particule pe care le-a numit fotoni. De atunci, dezbaterea stiintifica nu a incetat nici o clipa, oamenii de stiinta intrebandu-se daca lumina este alcatuita din unde sau din particule.

Este extrem de interesant de analizat faptul ca in 1920, de exemplu, si din nou in 1923, Einstein credea cu tarie, de fapt, in existenta eterului:

In 1920, after Einstein had become famous, he made an inaugural address on aether and relativity theory for his special chair in Leiden. In the address he states:

The aether of the general theory of relativity is a medium without mechanical and kinematic properties, but which codetermines mechanical and electromagnetic events.

So we finally find that relativity is an ether theory after all, and that this ether has arbitrary abstract contradictory physical characteristics! This illustrates the arbitrary nature of relativity, most physicists, and for that matter, most physics text books, present the argument that relativity is not an ether theory.

Si, in 1923:

With regard to the ether, Einstein states:

Light propagates through the sea of ether, in which the Earth is moving. In other words, the ether is moving with respect to the Earth...

The above information gives us insight into the nature of Einstein's relativity theory. He believes that the sea of ether exists, but he also believes that it cannot be detected by experiments, in other words, he believes it is invisible.

Amintesc toate aceste informatii pentru ca orice discutie despre lumina trebuie sa raspunda la aceste doua intrebari fundamentale:

1. Exista sau nu vid cosmic absolut? Conform lui Einstein, fotonii se vor manifesta ca o unda de energie pura, in vid absolut, si nicidecum ca niste particule. Cand intra intr-un camp magnetic, lumina isi modifica starea si se divide in particule sau fotoni. In aceasta stare, viteza ei nu va mai fi c. Sau formulat altfel, exista eter sau nu? Daca eterul exista, atunci lumina este pur si simplu o unda vibratorie a eterului insasi, care se propaga in eter, si nu este constituita din fotoni.

2. Este viteza luminii (in eter si/sau in vid) o constanta sau o variabila?

Un om de stiinta, poate cel mai faimos dintre toti, care a incercat si a afirmat ca a gasit raspunsurile la aceste intrebari a fost N. Tesla.

N. Tesla a descoperit greseli fundamentale in ecuatiile lui J. Maxwell (omisiuni importante) si, mai mult, l-a informat pe H. Hertz despre greselile comise de acesta despre natura undelor electromagnetice; in timp ce H. Hertz si-a recunoscut greselile fata de N. Tesla, in public nu a facut nici o afirmatie in acest sens, iar scrisorile lui Tesla catre Hertz au fost cenzurate (portiunile relevante in care acesta ii explica lui Hertz greselile acestuia nu au mai fost incluse in manualele de fizica teoretica).

In lucrarile sale, N. Tesla facea o distinctie clar intre electromagnetism (e/m) si curentul electric. In urma experimentelor realizate, Tesla a ajuns la concluzia ca toti curentii electrici pot fi radiati in eter sub forma undelor longitudinale, utilizand bobine spiralate.

Din lucrarile lui Tesla:

'Este necesara existenta unei mari autoinductante pentru a se putea obtine doua lucruri: o frecventa relativ redusa, ce va reduce radiatia undelor e/m la valori relativ mici si un puternic efect rezonant. Acest lucru nu este posibil de obtinut la o antena cu capacitate mare si autoinductanta redusa. Este vorba de o foarte mare autoinductanta si de o capacitate relativ mica, circuitul astfel construit incat sa obtina o frecventa scazuta si sa blocheze scurgerile energetice. Radiatia e/m ce paraseste un sistem electric reprezinta doar energie pierduta. Sistemul meu rezonant poate transforma 90% din energie sub forma de unde e/m, iar 10% in curenti ce strabat pamantul. Nici o antena nu trebuie proiectata pentru a emite 90% radiatie e/m, deoarece aceasta reprezinta o energie ce se pierde dupa o anumita distanta, in timp ce curentii electrici strabat solul si pot fi recuperati ulterior.'

Iata si un alt citat, Einstein, 1928:

According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of matter, as consisting of parts ('particles') which may be tracked through time.(Albert Einstein, 1928, Leiden Lecture)

Deci, diferenta fundamentala intre fizica oficiala (ca sa-i spunem asa) si descoperirile lui Tesla, consta in faptul ca nu exista vacuum absolut, vidul fiind plin cu un imens ocean energetic. Vacuum spatio-temporal nu reprezinta altceva decat sarcina fara masa si are un gigantic potential electrostatic scalar.


Cele mai bune informatii despre experimentul care a eliminat, in mod nedrept, conceptul de aether din fizica moderna (mai multe informatii si pe sirul de discutii Nikola Tesla - Aether Theory).

http://web.archive.org/web/20040607062702/ca.geocities.com/rayredbourne/docs/21.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20040612113918/ca.geocities.com/rayredbourne/docs/b.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20040611112531/ca.geocities.com/rayredbourne/docs/b2.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20040612033435/ca.geocities.com/rayredbourne/docs/23.htm

http://users.net.yu/~mrp/contents.html (capitolele 5-10)
http://www.aquestionoftime.com/lorentz.htm
http://www.aquestionoftime.com/michmore.htm

http://www.orgonelab.org/miller.htm
These papers by Michelson and also by Kennedy-Thorndike have conveniently been forgotten by modern physics, or misinterpreted as being totally negative in result, even though all were undertaken with far more precision, with a more tangible positive result, than the celebrated Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887. Michelson went to his grave convinced that light speed was inconstant in different directions, and also convinced of the existence of the ether. The modern versions of science history have rarely discussed these facts.



At the face of it, it sounds unbelievable, that vacuum which is considered by current scientific theories as a void or a state of nothingness can ever generate energy out of its own substratum. As per modern physics while 'absolute vacuum' or 'space' can no doubt transmit electromagnetic energy, in the absence of universal matter and its associated energy fields, there can be no energy-content that is ‘reality’ in space. The concept of ether filling all space and atoms as 'vortices of ether' introduced by Rene Descartes(1596-1650) and developed to a great extent by the close of 19th century found no favour in the early 20th century. Though the domain of reality was extended from matter to energy by Einstein's Relativity Theory, yet space devoid of universal matter ceased to have any substantiality.

Aether concept

The aether was assumed to be stationary and filling all the universe, with matter bodies like the Sun and Earth moving through it. We should be able to detect an aether wind, as with the generated wind on a moving motorcycle on a windless day. If there were never a wind touching us and moving through the trees, we might never know that air exists. Same with the aether. We never normally see manifestations of its existence (that we attribute to it), so we don’t perceive it as existing, any more than people were aware of the gravity force before Newton. But if the aether wind is too fine for us to detect at the human level of senses, then we require an experiment of some sort to demonstrate it.

The 'photon particle' theory fails as a carrier of E-M wave energy, under even casual scrutiny. It 'impacts then disappears'. It is made of no identified material, but supposedly has structural integrity, yet cannot be used in High-Energy Particle Accelerator/Colliders. Polarized sunglasses would not work if light were particles, but Polarized lenses are specifically designed for light as waves, including sunglasses and photographic lenses. Conventional Physics claims light to be a particle having 'momentum but no mass', in direct conflict with the simple mathematical formula that states momentum (Kinetic Energy, Ek) is mass at velocity; Ek = mv2 /2. The theory of light waves, propagating through the aether wave-medium, satisfies all of these observed phenomena.


Regarding Gravity, the mechanism for generating gravity force has never been identified prior to this new theory first being publicized a number of years ago. The posited 'graviton particles' of conventional physics, have never been found. Newton avoided calling gravity force 'pull-together' or 'attractive' because he could not identify the mechanism. Therefore, the popular statement that gravity force emanates from mass (matter), to somehow reach out and pull things back, is a hypothetical possibility, but not proven. To do so, it would have to be a sort of single-poled attraction, reaching from a center, out in all directions. Such a mechanism has never been demonstrated, nor even theorized in Quantum Mechanics.


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Re: Despre experimentul Michelson-Morley - 1887
« Răspuns #1 : Decembrie 17, 2008, 10:41:12 p.m. »
Raspunsuri pe scurt la cele doua chestiuni:
1. Vid absolut nu are cum sa existe. Din moment ce se genereaza camp cu liniile de camp deschise, aceste linii duc la infinit, iar influenta lor, oricat de mica ar fi, exista. (Media totalitatii acestor campuri suprapuse am numit-o camp cosmic general).
2. Viteza luminii in vid este data de campul cosmic general si este constanta doar daca nu exista alte influente in apropierea ei. O stea, sau chiar o planeta in proximitate este deja o influenta suficienta pentru a schimba valoarea 'c'.